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Exodus 12:31-51 Passover in Egypt and Beyond

YeHoVaH inaugurated a Calendar for Israel and established a yearly cycle of months, dates, and timelines for future Holy Days, Events, Memorials, Ceremonies, and Celebrations that Israel was to observe as a newly formed Nation. The beginning of months and the first month of the year on Israel’s calendar would forever be tied to YeHoVaH and His deliverance.

Israel’s Calendar instructed when Passover was to be celebrated in Egypt, while they wandered in the wilderness, when they entered the New Land as a Nation, and as an ordinance forever. Instructions and restrictions were also given as to who could and could not celebrate the Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread.

Ex 12:31 And he called for Moses and Aaron by night, and said, Rise up, and get you forth from among my people, both ye and the children of Israel; and go, serve the LORD, as ye have said. 

The night of Passover was when the firstborns were killed prior to sunrise of the 15th day, the 1st day of Unleavened Bread.

Ex 12:32 Also take your flocks and your herds, as ye have said, and be gone; and bless me also. 

If Moses blessed Pharaoh or not, it is not recorded.  This leaves me to believe that Moses did not.

Pharaoh expels the Israelites from the land after the death sentence of the firstborn as YeHoVaH had said . 

Flocks and herds are both cattle in Hebrew. Flocks refer to smaller beasts as sheep and goat.  Herds refer to larger beasts  as ox, bulls and kines.

Ex 12:33 And the Egyptians were urgent upon the people, that they might send them out of the land in haste; for they said, We be all dead men. 

The death of the firstborn sent fear through all the people of Egypt. The fear of death caused the remaining Egyptians to think that they could be next to die. Therefore, the Egyptians wanted the Israelites to leave immediately for the safety of the Egyptians.

Ex 12:34 And the people took their dough before it was leavened, their kneadingtroughs being bound up in their clothes upon their shoulders.  Ex 12:35 And the children of Israel did according to the word of Moses; and they borrowed of the Egyptians jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment: 

The people left in haste, without having time to prepare bread; their kneading bowls had been packed away with their possessions.

The Egyptians were eager to see the Israelites leave and gave them whatsoever they requested to get rid of them in haste.  

Ex 12:36 And the LORD gave the people favour in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they lent unto them such things as they required. And they spoiled the Egyptians. 

Israel leaves Egypt.

The number at the time of the Exodus.

Ex 12:37 And the children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand on foot that were men, beside children.

Foot – 07273 רַגְלִי ragliy {rag-lee'} 

Meaning:  1) on foot 1a) man on foot, footman, foot soldier 

Usage:  AV - footman 7, footman + 0376 4, foot 1; 12 Foot soldiers

Others: Men on beasts, in wagons and carts, the elderly, and women.

Ex 12:38 And a mixed multitude went up also with them; and flocks, and herds, even very much cattle. 

The nationalities, ethnicities, or status of the mixed multitude are not known.

Ex 12:39 And they baked unleavened cakes of the dough which they brought forth out of Egypt, for it was not leavened; because they were thrust out of Egypt, and could not tarry, neither had they prepared for themselves any victual. Ex 12:40 Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years.

Father tells Abraham they will be afflicted 400 years.

Ge 15:13 And he said unto Abram, Know of a surety that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs, and shall serve them; and they shall afflict them four hundred years; 

The timeline varies. Paul writes in Galatians 3:16,17  that the Law came 430 years after the covenant was made with Abraham.

Gal 3:16 Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ. Gal 3:17 And this I say, that the covenant, that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul, that it should make the promise of none effect. 

Gal 3:18 For if the inheritance be of the law, it is no more of promise: but God gave it to Abraham by promise.

The exodus was connected to the promise to Abraham and the promise to Abraham was connected to circumcision, as we shall see. 

Ex 12:41 And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, even the selfsame day it came to pass, that all the hosts of the LORD went out from the land of Egypt. 

 The Passover was when the firstborns were killed.

Ex 12:42 It is a night to be much observed unto the LORD for bringing them out from the land of Egypt: this is that night of the LORD to be observed of all the children of Israel in their generations. 

YeHoVaH gives instructions for future Passovers. 

Ex 12:43 And the LORD said unto Moses and Aaron, This is the ordinance of the passover: There shall no stranger eat thereof: 


Ordinance – 02708 חֻקָּה chuqqah {khook-kaw'} 

Meaning:  1) statute, ordinance, limit, enactment, something prescribed 1a) statute 

Usage:  AV - statute 77, ordinance 22, custom 2, appointed 1, manners 1, rites 1; 104 

Passover – 06453 פֶּסַח pecach {peh'-sakh} 

Meaning:  1) passover 1a) sacrifice of passover 1b) animal victim of the passover 1c) festival of the passover 

Usage:  AV - passover 46, passover offerings 3; 49

No stranger shall eat it.

  • Ex 12:44 But every man's servant that is bought for money, when thou hast circumcised him, then shall he eat thereof.

The servant bought with money must be circumcised like in the days of Abraham.

  • Ge 17:9 And God said unto Abraham, Thou shalt keep my covenant therefore, thou, and thy seed after thee in their generations. 
  • Ge 17:10 This is my covenant, which ye shall keep, between me and you and thy seed after thee; Every man child among you shall be circumcised. 
  • Ge 17:11 And ye shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin; and it shall be a token of the covenant betwixt me and you. 
  • Ge 17:12 And he that is eight days old shall be circumcised among you, every man child in your generations, he that is born in the house, or bought with money of any stranger, which is not of thy seed. 
  • Ge 17:13 He that is born in thy house, and he that is bought with thy money, must needs be circumcised: and my covenant shall be in your flesh for an everlasting covenant. Ge 17:14 And the uncircumcised man child whose flesh of his foreskin is not circumcised, that soul shall be cut off from his people; he hath broken my covenant.

The uncircumcised man could not eat the Passover.

  • Ex 12:45 A foreigner and an hired servant shall not eat thereof. 
  • A foreigner and hired servants were free men and not in covenant or under the Law.
  • Ex 12:46 In one house shall it be eaten; thou shalt not carry forth aught of the flesh abroad out of the house; neither shall ye break a bone thereof. 
  • Ex 12:47 All the congregation of Israel shall keep it.

Only Israel ate the Passover in Egypt.

Once they leave Egypt and come into the land, the stranger must decide whether they will keep the Passover.

The stranger, non-Israelite made a decision to leave Egypt during the Exodus. They would also have to make a decision on whether they would sojourn with Israel or depart company. They had to decide on what level of relationship they wanted to have.

A non-Israelite could be a:



Hired Servant


Ex 12:48 And when a stranger shall sojourn with thee, and will keep the passover to the LORD, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it; and he shall be as one that is born in the land: for no uncircumcised person shall eat thereof. 

The stranger had to be circumcised to eat the Passover. 

The Stranger (ger) cannot replace Israel. 

The Gentile (goy) cannot replace the Israelites. 

They can only be grafted in, sojourn among, or be incorporated into Israel.

Stranger – 01616 גֵּר ger {gare} or (fully) גֵּיר geyr (gare) 

Meaning:  1) sojourner 1a) a temporary inhabitant, a newcomer lacking inherited rights 1b) of foreigners in Israel, though conceded rights 

Usage:  AV - stranger 87, alien 1, sojourner 1, stranger + 0376 1, stranger + 04480 1, strangers + 0582 1; 92

Ex 12:49 One law shall be to him that is homeborn, and unto the stranger that sojourneth among you. 

The church does not replace Israel. 

01481 גּוּר guwr {goor} 

Meaning:  1) to sojourn, abide, dwell in, dwell with, remain, inhabit, be a stranger, be continuing, surely 1a) (Qal) 1a1) to sojourn, dwell for a time 1a2) to abide, stay, temporarily dwell 1b) (Hithpolel) 1b1) to seek hospitality with 1b2) to assemble oneself

Usage:  AV - sojourn 58, dwell 12, afraid 6, stranger 6, gather together 4, fear 3, abide 2, assemble 1, stand in awe 1, gathered 1, inhabitant 1, remain 1, sojourners 1, surely 1; 98


Ex 12:50 Thus did all the children of Israel; as the LORD commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they. 

Ex 12:51 And it came to pass the selfsame day, that the LORD did bring the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt by their armies.

Armies – 06635 צָבָא tsaba' {tsaw-baw'} or )fem.צְבָאָה ( tseba'ah {tseb-aw-aw'} 

Meaning:  1) that which goes forth, army, war, warfare, host 1a) army, host 1a1) host (of organised army) 1a2) host (of angels) 1a3) of sun, moon, and stars 1a4) of whole creation 1b) war, warfare, service, go out to war 1c) service 

Usage:  AV - host 393, war 41, army 29, battle 5, service 5, appointed time 3, warfare 2, soldiers 1, company 1, misc 5; 485

The armies of Israel were the fighting men, women, and children of each tribe.

Last Updated on October 19, 2021 by

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